Does Philanthrocapitalism Make the Rich Richer and the Poor Poorer?

Income inequality and philanthropy

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By Linsey McGoey 

The first time Bill Gates met Puff Daddy, the rapper and fashion entrepreneur, the encounter was a tense one.

The meeting took place in New York, where Gates had been hanging out at the back of a bar with Bono and other friends. Puff Daddy approached Gates and his coterie. He stood before Gates and nodded.

‘You are a motherfucker.’

Gates’s eyes darted at the man. It’s doubtful the world’s most generous philanthropist hears comments like this too often.

Diddy continued his train of argument: ‘You are a motherfucker. What you are doing on immunization in Botswana? Motherfucker.’

Gates leaned back in his chair and relaxes, realizing that Puff Daddy was offering him a high compliment.

This encounter is reported by Matthew Bishop and Michael Green in their book Philanthrocapitalism: How the Rich Can Save the World.

First published in 2008, this book has become something of a bible for a new breed of philanthropist vowing to reshape the world by running philanthropic foundations more like for-profit businesses. In this world, Gates is hailed as the ‘MacDaddy’ of the new philanthropy. Bishop and Green offer a quote from Bono on the appeal of Gates’s charitable work: ‘Jay-Z, all of the hip-hop guys, kind of adore him. Because he is not seen as a romantic figure – well, maybe romantic in the sense that Neil Armstrong is romantic, a scientist but not a poet. He gets shit done.’

Getting shit done. You might hear other phrases for it. The new philanthrocapitalists claim to be more results-oriented and more efficient than earlier philanthropic donors. They want to revolutionize the last realm untouched by the hyper-competitive, profit-oriented world of financial capitalism: the world of charitable giving. In place of bureaucratic quagmires, they plan to get shit done.

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Proponents of philanthrocapitalism often claim that a business-like approach to philanthropy is something entirely new. Inspired by catchphrases such as ‘shared value,’ coined by management theorists Mark Kramer and Michael Porter, the new philanthropists argue that what sets out their approach from older models is a novel emphasis on measuring the results of charitable giving in order to make sure philanthropy creates the most social benefits possible in the most efficient way: what matters is getting the cost-benefit calculus right.

In 1999, for example, Kramer and Porter published an article in Harvard Business Review claiming that far too few philanthropic foundations ‘think strategically about how they can create the most value for society with the resources they have at their disposal. Little effort is devoted to measuring results. On the contrary, foundations often consider measuring performance to be unrelated to their charitable mission.’

There’s only one problem with this suggestion. It’s demonstrably false. In reality, a business-like, impact-oriented approach to charity has been dominant within large-scale philanthropy for at least 120 years, ever since industrialists such as Carnegie and Rockefeller vowed to apply business techniques to the realm of philanthropy. Just look at Rockefeller’s main philanthropic advisor, a former Baptist clergyman named Frederick T. Gates. Gates left the Baptist ministry in the late 1880s and went on to spend following decades advising first Rockefeller Sr., and then later on his son, John D. Rockefeller Jr., on the best way to disburse their philanthropic holdings. An outspoken fan of the Efficiency Movement, a school of thought flourishing from the 1890s to the early 1930s that aimed to apply Taylorist principles of management to all spheres of social and business life, Gates continually advised Rockefeller to try to leverage his philanthropic spending in ways that would achieve the most observable good.

William Schambra, a well-regarded expert on philanthropy based at the Hudson Institute, reiterated this point to me during an interview: ‘The notion that we should organize our philanthropies the way we organize our corporations – that was John D. Rockefeller’s original idea. That we establish a kind of corporate structure with a bureaucracy and careful decision-making. [Philanthrocapitalism] is just more of that.’

When proponents of philanthrocapitalism claim that the ‘new’ philanthropy is more impact-oriented or business-like than approaches from the past, they are brazenly ignoring the legacy of movements such as the Efficiency School. The historian Stanley Katz has made this point bluntly. ‘Much of the current foundation promotional rhetoric,’ he has written, ‘seems to me to bespeak a troubling lack of knowledge about the history of the great and large American foundations.’

Gazing further back, to the eighteenth century, the parallels between today’s philanthrocapitalists and earlier generations become even more striking. At first glance, the oxymoronic character of a phrase like ‘philanthrocapitalism’ seems quite pronounced. Very few things seem more incongruous than philanthropy, the realm of altruism, and capitalism, the realm of private profit-seeking. And yet, looked at historically, the purported novelty of the idea disappears.

A key claim of the ‘new’ philanthropy is that markets and morals are not distinct phenomena, but commensurate goods. By harnessing the power of the market, philanthrocapitalism inevitably contributes to the welfare of a wider community. This is a powerful idea, but it’s hardly a new one. Quite the contrary, it echoes long-held assumptions about the societal advantages of private enterprise. Indeed, one might say it’s the founding kernel of modern political economy, apparent at least since the writings of Bernard Mandeville and Adam Smith, political economists who advanced the idea that individuals laboring to meet their own self-interested economic goals naturally contribute to the common public good.

The philosopher Slavoj Žižek is one of the few critical observers to point out the strange sense of déjà vu that pervades the rhetoric of philanthrocapitalism enthusiasts. He has pointed out that their maxims are like a ‘postmodernized version of Adam Smith’s invisible hand: the market and social responsibility are not opposites, but can be reunited for mutual benefit … their goal is not to earn money, but to change the world (and as a by-product, make even more money)’.

Žižek makes a good point. But two things are new about the new philanthropy. One is scale. The other is outspoken way that donors celebrate rather than veil the capacity to use philanthropy for private enrichment.

When it comes to scale, while solid numbers are elusive, it’s clear that global philanthropy is in a golden phase. Nearly half of the 85,000 private foundations in the United States alone were created in the past fifteen years. Thousands more private philanthropic foundations are set up each year.

Experts differ over whether this flourishing of individual foundations actually represents a significant increase in overall charitable giving in comparison to earlier decades. Ray Madoff, a professor of law at Boston College, has pointed out that within the US, overall charitable giving has remained at about 2 percent of the gross domestic product since the 1970s, and that contributions from individuals have stayed relatively the same for 40 years, amounting to about 2 percent of disposable income.

Broadening the gaze beyond the US, clear-cut pronouncements about increases in global philanthropy are easier to make. Philanthropy scholars David Moore and Douglas Rutzen suggest that global philanthropy has dramatically increased in recent years, a growth that has ‘corresponded with a rise of private wealth in Brazil, India, China, and other countries.’

This surge in global philanthropy is rooted in growing wealth concentration and widening economic inequality – something that has enriched the ability of the wealthy to give away eye-popping sums. Warren Buffett’s much-hailed 2006 offering of $30 billion toward the Gates Foundation is just one recent example.

But to what end?

What’s remarkable about the growing number of philanthropic foundations over the past two decades is that increased giving hasn’t made a dent in reducing growing levels of economic inequality. In fact the opposite appears to be the case. What to make of the fact that growing philanthropy and growing inequality seem to go hand-in-hand? Does philanthropy actually make the rich richer and the poor poorer?

Straightforward assertions of causality are hard to make, as multiple factors contribute to widening wealth divides. But there are a number of reasons why growing levels of philanthropy might exacerbate growing inequality rather than mitigate it. One is that charitable donations deprive treasuries of tax revenues that could be spent on redistributive welfare policies.

The second is that a surprisingly small proportion of foundation giving is geared at offering economic relief for low-income individuals. Yearly reports from organizations such as the Giving Institute show that only a small percentage, typically less than 10 percent each year, are spent on initiatives labelled as for ‘public-society benefit’ in contrast to far greater spending on religious pursuits or gifts to wealthy universities.

Another concern is that philanthropy is used to thwart demands for higher taxation, protecting and expanding assets rather than redistributing wealth. Philanthropy often opens up markets for US or European-based multinationals which partner with organizations such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in order to reach new consumers. Giving more is a strategy for getting more, helping to concentrate wealth in an ever-narrowing nucleus of power-brokers with growing influence over policy-setting at organizations such as the World Health Organization.

Philanthropists themselves are often the first to admit that their philanthropy is aimed at preserving rather than redistributing wealth. Carlos Slim is, perhaps, the most candid about this fact, summarizing his own approach to charity with the comment, ‘Wealth is like an orchard. You have to share the fruit, not the trees.’

Slim’s comment parrots a belief that underpinned the generosity of earlier benefactors such as Andrew Carnegie, the steel baron. In his influential essays on the value of charitable giving, published through the late 1880s and 1890s, Carnegie was clear that philanthropic gestures were crucial for allowing the wealthy to consolidate wealth and ensure manufacturing processes were not threatened by an increasingly militant working class demanding organizational change.

He suggested in 1889 that philanthropy would enable the ‘problem of rich and poor to be solved. The laws of accumulation will be left free, the laws of distribution free. Individualism will continue, but the millionaire will be but a trustee of the poor, entrusted for a season with a great part of the increased wealth of the community, but administering it for the community far better than it could or would have done for itself.’

Carnegie was writing at a time of massive labour unrest on US soil. Few of his workers were swayed by the suggestion that the so-called ‘laws of accumulation’ must be left intact so that he and a handful of others could control unlimited wealth to gift to their select causes.

A number of Victorian and early twentieth-century novelists wrote satires of this mind-set of Carnegie and fellow benefactors. Robert Tressell’s The Ragged Trousered Philanthropists, a novel set among a group of house painters, satirically extended the label of ‘philanthropists’ to a group of workers who meekly accede to their bosses’ demands. With sly wit, Tressel suggested that their willingness to give away their labour cheaply was the ultimate philanthropic act.

Today, philanthropy has largely sanitized of earlier satirical associations. From concerts such as Live Aid, to the popularity of shows such as The Secret Millionaire, a hit British TV show where benefactors lurk undercover in poor communities to find worthy recipients of their charity, philanthropy has achieved a popular salience that makes acts of giving hard to criticize or question.

Public acclaim, even reverence, for today’s philanthropists is kindled by a largely deferential media, prone to embrace and perpetuate the claim that there is something unprecedented about the new, ‘strategic’ philanthropy at organizations such as the Gates Foundation.

Certain techniques of measurement may be new, such as randomized controlled trials which hail from 1920s but have gained preeminence in development circles over the past 20 years. But the effort to evaluate impact is not.

And yet, time and again, today’s philanthrocapitalists tend to ignore their historical precursors. A good example is a recent article by Napster co-founder Sean Parker in the Wall Street Journal. Parker suggests that’s what unusual about the new global elite is their ‘hacker’ mentality. In his words, the ‘newly minted hacker elite is an aberration in this history of wealth creation.’ For evidence he cites the young age of today’s elite: the fact that many tech billionaires achieved success before turning 40. Then he contrasts the new ‘hacker’ elites with ‘antiquated’ traditional philanthropic foundations that, he claims, are uninterested in gauging their effectiveness.

Both points are false. Carnegie and Rockefeller each accumulated considerable wealth by their thirties, and each would have been the ‘hackers’ of their day, desperate to distance their own giving from alms-giving which saw charity as virtuous in itself regardless of practical effect. Contrary to Parker’s suggestion in the article – his argument that ‘youth and philanthropy haven’t historically mixed’ – Rockefeller and Carnegie gave generously throughout their lives and not simply in their dotage. Rockefeller started systematically surrendering a significant portion of his income while he was still a teenager.

Very little of Parker’s recent Wall Street Journal article is historically accurate, something pointed out by specialist websites such as HistPhil, a site devoted to the history of large-scale giving. And yet Parker was feted in the mainstream press, including a glowing review in Intercept, an online forum funded by Pierre Omidyar, as if Parker’s approach was really as innovative or unprecedented as he suggests.

Omidyar, the founder of eBay, is unusual among philanthrocapitalists in acknowledging the relevance of early political economists to his own approach to philanthropy and business; he often praises Smith for igniting his belief that private enterprise, under the right, laissez-faire conditions, will lead to collective benefits.

But this is a partial picture of Smith’s work. On the rare occasion when the new philanthropists speak of their historical predecessors, they tend to select convenient fragments of writing that propagate convenient caricatures of early political economists.

Take the writing of Mandeville, a Dutch philosopher born in 1670 who spent most of his career in England. Many people credit Adam Smith for originating the idea that individuals, labouring to meet their own economic needs and desires, will fuel collective public benefits. But an earlier genesis of that idea is actually found in Mandeville. It’s encapsulated in his influential essay, The Fable of the Bees.

In this essay, Mandeville adopts the metaphor of a bee hive. Within the hive, he writes, there thrives a mass of industrious and ingenious bees, many of whom seemed immoral – they were deceitful, vain, fickle – and yet their wants helped to make the ‘the whole mass a Paradise’. Their ingenious scheming, however rooted in vice, helped to fuel a dynamic industry, creating such comforts that ‘the Poor / Liv’d Better than the Rich before’.

Progress, in other words, was rooted in economic greed rather than abstinence. In the desire to get; rather than in restraint against taking. The idea that self-interest serves an important economic and moral function is visible in a direct lineage stemming from Mandeville and Smith, through nineteenth-century industrialists such as Carnegie and Rockefeller, to champions of philanthrocapitalism today.

Take the example of men and women profiled by the US anthropologist Karen Ho in her studies of young Wall Street investment bankers. The bankers she encounters display genuine and deeply felt bafflement that so many outsiders to their field perceive an absence of morals in their actions. Far from it, they are confident they are performing an essential public service. They see the embrace of Schumpeterian forms of ‘creative destruction’ as essential to ensuring smaller enterprises can flourish and compete. Like Mandeville, they insist that private profits generate public rewards.

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But there’s an important aspect of Mandeville’s argument which is often neglected. In Fable of the Bees, he writes the following verse:

So Vice is beneficial found

When it’s by Justice lopt and bound.

In another section, he insists that ‘Private Vice by the dextrous Management of a skilful Politician may be turned into Publick Benefits.’ Mandeville’s homage to economic self-interest, in other words, stressed the need for governmental management and legal restrictions in order to ensure that public profiteering does, indeed, lead to public rewards.

What’s missing in the peppy enthusiasm of today’s philanthrocapitalists is sufficient recognition of the historical struggles over private profits and public gain that have shaped labour relations at least since Mandeville’s day. When they acknowledge history, which isn’t often, today’s philanthrocapitalists praise a bastardized version of early political economy, one that ignores the emphasis that Mandeville and later Adam Smith placed on the need for government regulation.

Private enterprise may reap public benefits. But only if state actors, through ‘dextrous Management,’ are able to steward wealth in a way that guarantees that public interests are served as well as private ones. Mandeville, the original, unsung hero of philanthrocapitalism, was actually a champion of powerful, interventionist governments. No wonder today’s philanthrocapitalists tend to ignore him.

2016 February 23

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  • Ananthapadmanabhan

    in a developing economies this happens as government over spends to speedup the development process

  • Jacob Nails

    It takes some extreme cynicism to complain that Bill Gates funding vaccinations in Africa is what’s driving economic inequality, especially given the author’s blind optimism that governments taxing donations to the Third World in order to raise revenues for First World citizens will somehow work out better.

    The author vacillates between the contradictory complaints that “philanthrocapitalism” is not new, and that the new rise in philanthrocapitalism explains rising inequality. Donating to an art museum might not do much to rectify inequalities, but that’s exactly what the “results-oriented” charities that the author also criticizes try to avoid. That would also explain why she cites data from a random strawperson (The Giving Institute) instead of the Gates Foundation that she attacks for a majority of the article — because Gates’ and Buffet’s donations tend to go to the *most* effective charities, not religious institutions.

    The hidden agenda claim doesn’t make a whole lot of sense either. It’s not clear how Gates, Buffet, and Zuckerberg, and the rest could expect to make a net profit by donating over 90% of their wealth, even factoring in tax breaks. Not to mention, both Gates and Buffet have advocated FOR higher taxation, belying the authors’ claim that this is a ploy to keep taxes low.

    This isn’t meant as a defense of the wealthy writ large–on balance, they actually donate proportionately less of their income to charity than the average person–but it’s baffling that the author would target the few billionaires who have bucked the trend and used their money in ways that do benefit the world.

    • daemonman

      It takes extreme short sidedness to pertain the view that a SINGLE wealthy man is somehow worth more than some 5 billion poor. We are all part of a Gaussian distribution. The difference between Gates and a poor Somalian is so small as to be mostly about upbringing, sociopathic tendencies, and most of all luck.

      And it is not secret that the polio vaccinations by the Gates Foundation in India actually attributed to some 47,500 deaths. That’s right: the “philanthropic” endeavor, all meant to avoid paying taxes, actually caused a massive amount of deaths (

      You mention advocation, as if by saying something, the actions of that person are predetermined. Let me let you in on something: the super wealthy don’t pay taxes. They have multiple homes in multiple tax havens, off-shore bank accounts, lawyers, etc. all to avoid paying taxes. So you really believe them when they say that they WANT higher taxes? Sure they do, because even if the taxes were raised, they already know the loopholes, such as only being in America for less than half the year (which is easy when you own over 10 properties around the globe). Buffet once famously proclaimed that the wars between classes was over. That war was the taxcode, and it was over because the wealthy had fully compromised it.

      Buffet is a whole other case. Besides using the government to bail out all of his failing companies (he was the son of a senator for crying out loud), he has directly contributed the mortgage crisis in America, and his company is known to exploit minorities ( All of these wealthy people, who you think donate to the most transparent and good charities, would run you over and get a lawyer to cover their tracks.
      Please, ffs, learn to actually do some research surrounding the article, rather than lambasting and cherry picking from an article you clearly innately disagree with.

      • Jacob Nails

        No, the 5 billion poorest people don’t all unanimously agree with you.

        Anti-vaccine conspiracies do not count as research, and vaccines don’t kill you. Obviously.

        Most of the rest of the rant is irrelevant because I already said I’m not defending the rich or their business practices. Buffet’s not perfect. Gates had some monopolistic business practices, too. All I’ve claimed is that–however the money is acquired–it’s better for the rich to spend that money on effective charities than on themselves. Not sure how you’ve read that as a defense of corporate tax loopholes.

        Also, why *wouldn’t* I lambaste an article I innately disagree with? You just lambasted a comment you disagree with. Someone disagreeing with you doesn’t make them biased.

        By the way, the term is “short sightedness.” Coincidentally, that’s also a symptom of river blindness, one of the many diseases the Gates Foundation has helped to cure.

  • Duncan Cairncross

    Talking about the amount of money “invested” in philanthropy,
    People like Bill Gates are the exception
    Studies have shown that the wealthy actually contribute a substantially LOWER percentage than the poor and middle class
    And that did not include the tendency of the rich to invest their charitable giving in “charities” that did not actually benefit the poor

    Which means that if the 0.1% had NOT managed to buy the levers of power and use them to suck up most of the increase in productivity over the last 40 years then not only would the American poor need much less help
    (Because they would have a lot more money)
    but there would be much more money being given to the poor in the USA and the rest of the world

  • mhobson

    Obsene accumulation of wealth and then the giving back of that wealth as an act of generosity is laughable. More generous sharing of the profits at the source is the true philonthropic act. Thousands of millionaires vs one billionaire is much better for society. Money needs to flow through the economy not sit in the bank or continue to build an already wealth person’s portfolio.

    • antisvada

      And you only give to the few “worthy poor” that you have the privilege to choose.

      • runnadaroad

        Actually only a precious little of this philanthropy goes to the needy. The lions share of philanthropy goes to institutions which, though nonprofit, serve almost entirely the elites. There’s a reason Harvard’s endowment is usually the largest single recipient of philanthropic giving. Close behind are numerous toney prep schools and some hospital capital funds (not for treatment of charity cases). Only a tiny fraction of the largest recipients are used to touch on the growing inequality. That can only be done by unrigging the rules of the economy that keep the rich growing so grossly disproportionately richer.

  • Dulal Krishna Basu

    Both the links given by Jacob Nails are erroneous. Are you trying to bluff yourself out, Jacob?


  • BetterFailling

    I’m afraid that involving the Government in this would only complicate the matter.
    But there is a simpler way out of here.

  • alex

    “What’s remarkable about the growing number of philanthropic foundations over the past two decades is that increased giving hasn’t made a dent in reducing growing levels of economic inequality. In fact the opposite appears to be the case. What to make of the fact that growing philanthropy and growing inequality seem to go hand-in-hand? Does philanthropy actually make the rich richer and the poor poorer?

    Straightforward assertions of causality are hard to make, as multiple factors contribute to widening wealth divides. But there are a number of reasons why growing levels of philanthropy might exacerbate growing inequality rather than mitigate it. One is that charitable donations deprive treasuries of tax revenues that could be spent on redistributive welfare policies.”

    How is this not a contradiction? So if a charity gives soemthing then it creates inequality but if the state does then it is 100% effective? This web-site is a joke.

  • Andy White

    Philanthropic capitalism is a sick joke, especially if we consider the amount of taxation the wealthy and corporations non pay. Gates, Buffet and other “incredible philanthropists” have given away a thimble full compared to the oceans that are avoided globally and annually.

    The accumulation of wealth at the top that has happened over the last 4 decades is also a paper mache mountain that hides a hollow core of debt, many of the 1% are either hoarding huge mountains of debt and borrowing or spending vast sums on expensive geegaws that don’t put money back into the economy, but keep it circling at the top levels of the “trickle down pyramid”.

    In order to tackle inequality in the classical sense corporations and the wealthy need to be forced to shoulder a rational share of the tax burden as this would give national governments far more money to spend. Increasing the flow of capital into the foundation of society by something like universal basic income would also have a profound effect in terms of changing society and inequality.

    Largess by the elite is often nothing more than a parlour trick as philanthropy is used to assuage guilt, fool the taxman and invest in causes that have little or no discernable impact, for obvious reasons when the books are looked at of many charitable organizations.

    In terms of equating wealth to happiness, its a facetious comparison with no real or tangible core….. money does not create happiness but opportunity, poverty equally does not make for misery, drive or piousness but generates drag that slows down social growth and development.

    Philanthrocapitalism is in many ways like a growing malignant tumour fooling “experts” and the scales into thinking an anorexic is getting better.

  • Hologrammar

    No need to make up buzzwords. It’s not “philanthrocapitalism”; it’s feudalism, same as it ever was.

  • Osvaldo Doron

    What the heck are yoiu talking about? This graph shows the proportion of world population in extreme poverty 1981–2008 according to the World Bank.

  • Michael Grimm

    Every problem in America stems from the fact that not working is valued over hard work. We should not tax people’s pay – the money they earned from hard work at a job or business; We should only tax free money that we didn’t work for like inheritance, gifts, trusts, capital gains, interest income, etc. If businesses creates good full time jobs in America with good pay and good benefits, then they should pay no taxes. If they outsource, automate, offshore, contract out, pay slave wages, or offer no benefits then they should be taxed till they go broke. The best society we ever had in America where full employment with high paying jobs and a high standard of living existed when taxes were very progressive and at nearly 70 percent for the top bracket. This penalty can be avoided by taxing money that was NOT worker for and NOT EARNED by the person receiving it. Every political commentator talks about the INCOME for the wealthy and not the WEALTH of the wealthy. The top 1 percent control $900 trillion in wealth while the income reported by them per year is less than $50 billion. If you read the CBO’s report it says across the top: “Income from Wages, Tips and Salaries”. It does NOT include capital gains where most of the wealthy make their money. It also does not include inheritance, trusts, dividends, investments, stocks, bonds, real estate, etc. In fact, many of the wealthiest pay have no wages, tips, and salaries and get all their money from interest income and unearned sources and don’t even show up in income tax returns. They do show up in capital gains taxes at 15 percent or less. Therefore according to the CBO, the “rich” people that pay the most income taxes are just the middle class.

  • Paul J. White

    The fact that the government redistributing wealth is deemed preferable to or more moral than voluntary donations for specific problems – e.g. clean water – concerns me. Even in communist or socialist countries there is wealth inequality, altough the inequality is often tied to insiders and outsiders of the governmeruling class. I have more wealth than some, less than others. I don’t want any of Bill Gates money and I prefer to decide where my charitable contributions go.

  • walter cook

    Keep in mind that often what is counted as philanthropy may be donations to build an art museum to house the Walton heir’s collection, or a contribution to a non-profit that spends 100 Million dollars to “educate” politicians and others about your political beliefs, ala Koch Brothers. None of this will do anything but add to income inequality.

  • M A J Jeyaseelan

    In spite of the numerous problems associated with philanthropy, there is no alternative to it as of now. Every other mechanism seems either too lackadaisical or too insensitive to respond to desperate calls for help in time.

    At the same time nothing would be more foolhardy than to believe that philanthropy can provide long term solutions. Neither philanthropy nor the much touted redistribution initiatives of governments can help solve the problem for all time to come.

    The cruel reality that everyone including those who swear by re-distributive justice conveniently forget is that inequality is caused and abetted by economic theories that legitimise unfair exchanges and unearned incomes. The worst culprits are 1) justifications provided by economics for demand/opportunity cost based pricing 2) legitimisation of speculative markets, 3) authority given to the central banks to create money without contributing a penny of economic value, 4) permission granted to banks to create credit over and above the savings deposited with them and 5) the power vested with the governments for undertaking deficit financing. These are the real sources of inequality as these set in motion several unfair exchanges and create opportunities for the rich to amass unearned incomes. Unless and until these are done away with inequalities would only keep aggravating.

    There is another popular fallacy that needs urgent correction. There are people who believe that the calls for greater equality are against the human urge for earning more. The irony is: neither those who support accumulative capitalism nor those clamouring for re-distributive justice make the much need distinction between incomes earned through fair and unfair means. All the seven factors mentioned by me earlier are unfair albeit being legal and sanctioned by extant economic theories.

    Profits can be considered fair only to the extent these are the result of 1) technological/ management efficiency leading to lesser resource consumption per unit of output, 2) improved deliveries of values to consumers and 3) enhancement of the overall economic viability of the country.

    Profits amassed through 1) unfair pricing either through supply side manipulations or by conning customers 2) unearned incomes derived disproportionate rents, 3) gains from all forms of speculative transactions, and 4) investments made possible by bank loans created over and above the savings deposited are all unfair, despite being legal. These are unfair simply because these create additional claims on real economic values without having contributed any.

    At the bottom of the problem of growing inequalities is bad economics. We cannot solve the problem of inequality either through charity or through redistribution. Permanent solution for this problem is in doing away with the economic theories and popular fallacies that cause and abet unfair exchanges.

    If you would like to read more on this I invite you to read my recent article hyper linked below;